Lesson 2. Shading Techniques

1. Hatching
Hatching is achieved by using angular lines (running parallel to each other) to represent shading.
Start by holding the pencil still in your hand and moving your wrist to achieve short sharp lines, or the movement of your elbow to achieve straight long lines.

2. Cross-Hatching
Is achieved again by the use of angular lines (at right angles). The closer the lines are together the darker the area will appear to be, the further apart the lighter the shading. A combination of hatching and cross hatching can be used for differing effects.

3. Tonal

Is achieved in a variety of ways. Firstly through applying different levels of pressure while shading to achieve lighter and darker tones, the use of different pencils (with softer and harder lead), or a rubber can be used to apply light sources on a complex object.

4. Circulism
Is achieved through drawing circles in an area to achieve tones and areas of shading. The greater the volume of circles the darker that area will appear, using smaller and larger circles can give different tonal effects.